Below you will find that which "they" (who say many things) call The Big Picture: the entirety of art history broken up, chronologically, into five chunks. Have no fear. The first 30,400 years are taken care of in one fell swoop.
Look here for dates between the years 400-1400 A.D., and marvel that some still refer to this millennium as the Dark Ages. Yes, migration period art was portable by necessity (and much of it remains lost), but the single biggest counterargument to "Dark Ages" lays in the words "illuminated manuscript."
Modern Art runs from 1880 to 1970 on this timeline, and they were an extremely busy 90 years indeed. Not only had the Impressionists opened the floodgates on new paths to take, individual artists such as Picasso and Duchamp were themselves responsible for creating multiple movements. Heady artistic times and a long list of dates await you here.
We are roughly 40 years (1970-Present) in to the Contemporary timeline and, interestingly, either fewer movements are identifying themselves as such or art history simply hasn't caught up yet with those that have. Still, here is a growing list of Posts-, News-, Neues- and Neos- along with a sprinkling of contemporary -isms.